The Chicago Manual of Style Author-Date system is used by scholars in the social sciences and sciences. For arts, history, and humanities, see the Notes/Bibliography system.
Citing sources in this style consists of two parts:
The in-text citation points the reader to the full information about the source found in the reference list.
An in-text citation provides your reader with two pieces of information:
The reference list provides the full details of the items you have cited in your paper. Here are some general features of the reference list:
Du Bois, W. E. B. 1898. "The Study of the Negro Problems." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 11 (January): 1-23. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1009474.
———. 1903. The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and Sketches. Chicago: A. C. McClurg.
———. 1947. The World and Africa: An Inquiry into the Part Which Africa Has Played in World History. New York: Viking.
Olney, William W. 2015a. "Impact of Corruption on Firm-Level Export Decisions." Economic Inquiry 54 (2): 1105–27.
Olney, William W. 2015b. "Remittances and the Wage Impact of Immigration." Journal of Human Resources 50 (3): 694-727.
(World Bank 2011)
("The Titanic Sails To-Day" 1912)
(Human Rights Campaign 2016)
(Yetman 2001, under "Slave Narratives during Slavery and After")
(Geis and Bunn 1997, 17)
(Chih-Hung Ko et al. 2009, 600)
Geis, Gilbert, and Ivan Bunn. 1997. A Trial of Witches: a Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Prosecution. London: Routledge.
Ko, Chih-Hung, Ju-Yu Yen, Shu-Chun Liu, Chi-Fen Huang, and Cheng-Fang Yen. 2009. "The Associations between Aggressive Behaviors and Internet Addiction and Online Activities in Adolescents." Journal of Adolescent Health 44 (6): 598-605.
It is always better to consult the original source, but if it cannot be obtained, give information about the original source in the running text and include "quoted in" in your in-text citation for the secondary source. Include only the secondary source in your reference list. (CMOS, 15.52):
In his 1844 book Thoughts on the Proposed Annexation of Texas to the United States, Theodore Sedgwick opines "The annexation of Texas instead of strengthening the Union, weakens it" (quoted in Rathbun 2001, 479).
Rathbun, Lyon. 2001. "The Debate over Annexing Texas and the Emergence of Manifest Destiny." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 4 (3): 459-493.
Author Last Name, First Name. Year. Book Title. Place: Publisher.
Feder, Ellen K. 2007. Family Bonds: Genealogies of Race and Gender. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ProQuest ebrary.
Nairn, Tom. 1997. Faces of Nationalism: Janus Revisited. London: Verso.
Stewart, K. J. 1864. A Geography for Beginners. Richmond: J. W. Randolph. http://docsouth.unc.edu/imls/stewart/stewart.html.
Author Last Name, First Name, ed. Year. Book Title. Place: Publisher.
Dmytryshyn, Basil, ed. 1999. Imperial Russia: A Source Book, 1700-1917. New York: Academic International Press.
Roell, Craig H. 1994. "The Piano in the American Home." In The Arts and the American Home, 1890-1930, edited by Jessica H. Foy and Karal Ann Marling, 193-204. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
Well-known encyclopedias and dictionaries are usually cited in the running text only. For other reference works, cite as a book or book chapter.
Author Last Name, First Name. Year "Article Title." Journal Title Volume (Issue): Page Range of Article. doi: Digital Object Identifier.
For electronic journal articles, if a DOI is not available, replace the DOI portion of the reference with the URL.
Hunter, Margaret. 2016. "Colorism in the Classroom: How Skin Tone Stratifies African American and Latina/o Students." Theory into Practice 55 (1): 54-61. doi: 10.1080/00405841.2016.1119019.
Thompson, Maxine S., and Keith Verna M. 2001. "The Blacker the Berry: Gender, Skin Tone, Self-Esteem, and Self-Efficacy." Gender and Society 15 (3): 336-57. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3081888.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.47
Magazine articles can be cited in the running text (e.g., As Scott Spencer mentions in his May 1979 Harper's article "Childhood's End," ....) and not included in the reference list. However, if a formal citation is needed, follow the example below, separating the year and month/day.
Author Last Name, First Name. Year. "Article Title." Magazine Title, Month Day.
Inclusive page numbers are not included in the reference list entry because magazine articles tend to appear on non-consecutive pages. If citing an online magazine, end the citation with the URL.
Spencer, Scott. 1979. "Childhood's End." Harper's, May.
Tobar, Héctor. 2016. "Can Latinos Swing Arizona?" New Yorker. August 1. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/08/01/promise-arizona-and-the-power-of-the-latino-vote.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.47
Newspaper articles can be cited in the running text (e.g., As John Eligon mentioned in his November 18, 2015 New York Times article ....) and not included in the reference list. However, if a formal citation is needed, follow the examples below, separating the year and month/day.
Author Last Name, First Name. Year. "Article Title." Newspaper Title, Month Day, sec. Section.
Page numbers are not included because articles can appear on different pages in different editions. For regularly occurring columns, cite with both the column name and headline or just the column name. If citing an online newspaper, include the URL at the end. If citing from a library database, include the database name.
Eligon, John. 2015. "One Slogan, Many Methods: Black Lives Matter Enters Politics." New York Times, November 18. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/19/us/one-slogan-many-methods-black-lives-matter-enters-politics.html.
Erlanger, Steve. 1998. "Pact on Israeli Pullback Hinges on Defining Army's Role." New York Times, May 8, sec. A.
King, Martin Luther, Jr. 1966. "Negro Faces Dixie Justice." My Dream. Chicago Defender, April 23. ProQuest Historical Newspapers.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.51
Website content can often be mentioned in the running text only. (CMOS,14.245) If a reference list entry is needed, use the format below.
Author Last Name, First Name. Last Modified/Accessed Year. "Page Title." Website Title. Last modified Month Day. URL.
If there is no personal author, start with the page title or site sponsor. If there is no last modified date, use an access date.
Human Rights Campaign. 2016. "Maps of State Laws and Policies." Accessed July 27. http://www.hrc.org/state_maps.
Yetman, Norman R. 2001. "An Introduction to the WPA Slave Narratives." Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938. Last modified March 23. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/snintro00.html.
For more information see: Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide
Blog posts and comments are generally cited in the running text and omitted from the reference list. If a reference list entry is needed follow the example below.
Author Last Name, First Name. Year. "Post Title," Blog Title (blog), Month Day. URL.
If the blog has the word "blog" as part of its name, "(blog)" should not be included in the citation. If the blog is a part of a larger publication, include that title, too.
Stewart, Jenell .2016. "Natural Hair Creates a More Inclusive Standard," My Natural Hair Journey (blog), Huffington Post, July 12. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jenell-stewart/natural-hair-creates-a-more-inclusive-beauty-standard_b_10949874.html.
It is nearly impossible for the Chicago Manual of Style to provide examples for citing every new social media platform, but you may find advice or examples on their Chicago Style Q&A or CMOS Shop Talk. When there is no specific example, look for similar types of sources and use your best judgment to provide enough information to your reader about the source. Some elements to consider:
The answers to these questions can be incorporated into a sentence in your text.
For an example of Twitter see: Chicago Style Q& A, FAQ 164.
Note: The Chicago Manual of Style does not provide many examples of citations for media in the author-date style. The examples below modify the format used in the notes/bibliography style, moving the year to the second position. While you should always cite the format you used, the original date of the work, if known, should be privileged in the citation. (CMOS, 15.53)
Published music scores are cited like books and book chapters. For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.269
Composer Last Name, First Name. Year. "Song Title." In Book Title, edited by Editor First Name Last Name, Inclusive Pages for Song. Place: Publisher.
Johnson, Charles L. 1997. "Crazy Bone Rag." In Ragtime Jubilee: 42 Piano Gems, 1911-21, edited by David A. Jasen, 41-45. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.276
Composer, Performer, or Conductor Last Name, First Name. Original Recording Year. Album Title. Record Label Catalog Number, Reissue Year, Medium.
The Beatles. 1969. Abbey Road. Parlophone CDP 7 46446 2, 1987, compact disc.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.279
Film Title. Original Release Year. Directed by Director First Name Last Name. Place: Studio/Distributor, Release Year of Medium Used. Medium.
Thelma & Louise. 1991. Directed by Ridley Scott. Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment, 2004. DVD.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.280
The format of citations depends on the information available. Generally, include details about the original published source (if applicable) and details related to the digitized copy such as source type, length, and where it is posted. See the two examples of format below.
Video Creator Last Name, First Name. Original Release Year. Video Title. Original Production Company. From Provider of Online Video. Source Type, Running Time. URL.
Author Last Name, First Name. Year Filmed. "Video Clip Title." Source Type, Running Time. Posted by Name of Person/Organization, Date Posted. URL.
Jobs, Steve. 2005. "Steve Jobs' 2005 Stanford Commencement Address." YouTube video, 15:04. Posted by Stanford, March 7, 2008. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UF8uR6Z6KLc.
U.S. Federal Civil Defense Administration. 1951. Duck and Cover. Archer Productions. From Internet Archive, Prelinger Archives. MPEG video, 9:15. http://archive.org/details/DuckandC1951.
For more information see: Chicago Style Q & A
TV Show Title. Original Broadcast Year. Episode no. Number, first broadcast Month Day by Network. Directed by Director First Name Last Name and written by Writer First Name Last Name.
Jane the Virgin. 2014. Episode no. 1-1, first broadcast October 13 by The CW. Directed by Brad Silberling and written by Jennie Snyder Urman.
For more information see: CMOS Shop Talk
Images are usually not included in the reference list. In the running text or caption indicate the artist, year the work was created, title of the work, and where it is located.
Works making extensive use of legal or government documents should use the footnote style, not the author-date style. For author-date style papers using just a few such documents, cite them in the text using the legal citation form recommended in The Chicago Manual of Style, 14.281–317. (CMOS, 15.54 and 15.55)
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.48
Unpublished interviews are cited as an in-text citation only; they do not appear in the reference list.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.49
Manuscript materials are cited in the text using the name of the manuscript collection, not the individual item.
The reference list gives information about the manuscript collection only, not the individual items. If only one item from a collection is cited the details of that item can be included in the reference list and the author used in the in-text citation .
Collection Name. Repository Name. Place.
Author Last Name, First Name. Year of Item. Item Description. Month Day of Item. Collection Name. Repository Name, Place.
If the item was accessed online, include the URL at the end of the citation.
Hopkins Family Papers. Williams College Special Collections. Williamstown, MA.
(Hopkins Family Papers)
Hopkins, Mark. 1861. Letter to Jaime Margalotti. 22 March. Hopkins Family Papers. Williams College Special Collections, Williamstown, MA.
You do not need to cite common knowledge.