Citing Your Sources: Chicago: Notes (17th)

The Williams Honor System requires you to properly acknowledge sources you have used in course assignments. This guide provides basic information on how to cite sources and examples for formatting citations in common citation styles.

Chicago Notes

About Chicago 17th ed.: Notes/Bibliography

The Chicago Manual of Style Notes/Bibliography system is used by scholars in history, arts, and humanities. For social sciences and sciences disciplines, see the Author-Date system.

This style consists of two parts:

  1. A superscript number in the text and corresponding note
  2. A bibliography

See How to Format Notes, How to Format the Bibliography, and the examples of types of sources in the left navigation for further details.

How to Format Notes

For more detailed information see Chicago Manual of Style, 14.19.

A note consist of two parts:

  1. A superscripted note number (1) in the text, placed at the end of a sentence or clause
  2. A note containing the citation, placed either at the bottom of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote).

General Formatting of Notes

  • List in order the author, title, and facts of publication
  • Author's names: write in standard order (e.g., Julia Alvarez)
  • Titles: capitalize in headline style (e.g., How the García Girls Lost Their Accents)
  • Books/Journal Titles: italicize (e.g., How the García Girls Lost Their Accents)
  • Article/Chapter Titles: enclose in quotation marks (e.g., "Black Twitter? Racial Hashtags, Networks and Contagion")
  • Separate elements with commas
  • Enclose facts of publication for books in parentheses
  • Abbreviate editor/edited by (ed.), translator/translated by (trans.), volume (vol.), edition (ed.)
Example

1. Julia Alvarez, How the García Girls Lost Their Accents (Chapel Hill, NC : Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 1991), 17.

2. Sanjay Sharma, "Black Twitter? Racial Hashtags, Networks and Contagion," New Formations: A Journal of Culture/Theory/Politics 78 (2013): 51, https://doi.org/10.3898/NEWF.78.02.2013.

For additional examples, see the source types listed in the left navigation.


Citing the Same Source Again

For more detailed information see Chicago Manual of Style, 14.29-14.36

  • To cite the same source again, shorten the citation using the author's last name and shortened title.

    Example

    1. Julia Alvarez, How the García Girls Lost Their Accents (Chapel Hill, NC : Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 1991), 17.

    2. Sanjay Sharma, "Black Twitter? Racial Hashtags, Networks and Contagion," New Formations: A Journal of Culture/Theory/Politics 78 (2013): 51. https://doi.org/10.3898/NEWF.78.02.2013.

    3. Alvarez, García Girls, 20-21.

    4. Sharma, "Black Twitter?," 57-58.

  • Chicago no longer recommends the use of ibid. When citing exactly the same single work as the previous note, use the shortened form, omitting the title of the work.

    Example

    1. Julia Alvarez, How the García Girls Lost Their Accents (Chapel Hill, NC : Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 1991), 17.

    2. Alvarez, 20-21.

How to Format the Bibliography

General Formatting of the Bibliography Entries

For more detailed information see Chicago Manual of Style, 14.21; 14.61-14.99

Bibliography entries are formatted similarly to notes, with the following differences:

  • Authors: names are inverted (e.g. Alvarez, Julia)
  • Publication details: not enclosed in parentheses
  • Elements are separated by periods, not commas
  • "Edited by" and "Translated by" are written out, not abbreviated
  • Entries are arranged alphabetically by last name of the author.

Compare the bibliography and note forms for this book:

Bibliography:

Alvarez, Julia. How the García Girls Lost Their Accents. Chapel Hill, NC : Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 1991.

Note:

1. Julia Alvarez, How the García Girls Lost Their Accents (Chapel Hill, NC : Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 1991), 17.

For additional examples, see the source types listed in the left navigation.


Order of the Bibliography Entries

  • Alphabetize the list by last name using the letter-by-letter system (e.g., Fernández would come before Fernán Gómez)
  • Single-authored works precedes multi-authored works beginning with the same name
  • Works by the same author are arranged alphabetically by title

How do I deal with ___?

Missing citation elements

  • Author:
    • If no personal author is listed, determine whether an organization is responsible for the content. If so, use that organization's name as the author. (CMOS, 14.84)

      1. World Bank. Poverty and Social Exclusion in India (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2011), 15.

    • If the author is unknown, start the note and bibliography entry with the title. (CMOS, 14.79)

      2. "The Titanic Sails To-Day," New York Times, April 10, 1912.

  • Place: Use n.p. if it is unknown. If it can be surmised, put in brackets with a question mark. (CMOS, 14.132)
  • Publisher: If not listed on the title page or copyright page, use "self-published" or "printed by author." (CMOS, 14.137)
  • Date: When the date of a printed work cannot be determined, use n.d. For web pages, use the access date. (CMOS, 14.145; 14.207)
  • Page numbers: For unpaginated works, such as online resources, include a descriptive phrase using one of the divisions used in the work (chapter, paragraph number, section heading, etc.) in the notes. If the work is short, such locators may not be necessary. (CMOS, 14.22)

More than one author

  • List authors in order they appear on title page
  • In the bibliography, invert the first author's name only and place a comma before and after the first name
  • Use the word "and," not an ampersand (&)
  • For works with 4-10 authors, list all names in the bibliography, but only use the first author's name followed by et al. for the note.
  • For works with more than 10 authors, only include the first 7 authors and et al. in the bibliography
    (CMOS14.76)
Examples

Notes:

1. Gilbert Geis and Ivan Bunn, A Trial of Witches: A Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Prosecution (London: Routledge, 1997), 17.

2. Chih-Hung Ko et al., "The Associations between Aggressive Behaviors and Internet Addiction and Online Activities in Adolescents," Journal of Adolescent Health 44, no. 6 (2009): 600.

Bibliography:

Geis, Gilbert, and Ivan Bunn. A Trial of Witches: a Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Prosecution. London: Routledge, 1997.

Ko, Chih-Hung, Ju-Yu Yen, Shu-Chun Liu, Chi-Fen Huang, and Cheng-Fang Yen. "The Associations between Aggressive Behaviors and Internet Addiction and Online Activities in Adolescents." Journal of Adolescent Health 44, no. 6 (2009): 598-605. 


Using a source quoted in a secondary source

It is always better to consult the original source, but if it cannot be obtained, cite the original source and the secondary source you used in the notes and the secondary source only in the bibliography (CMOS, 14.260):

Example

1. Theodore Sedgwick, Thoughts on the Proposed Annexation of Texas to the United States (New York: D. Fanshaw, 1844), 31, quoted in Lyon Rathbun, "The Debate over Annexing Texas and the Emergence of Manifest Destiny," Rhetoric & Public Affairs 4, no. 3 (Fall 2001): 479.

Rathbun, Lyon. "The Debate over Annexing Texas and the Emergence of Manifest Destiny." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 4, no. 3 (Fall 2001): 459-493.

Examples: Books, Chapters

Book

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.100-14.163

Format

note:

1. Author First Name Last Name, Book Title (Place: Publisher, Year), Cited Page(s).

bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. Book Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

For e-books, include the provider of the book, the URL, or e-book application/device at the end of the citation. (CMOS,14.159-14.163)

Examples

1. Tom Nairn, Faces of Nationalism: Janus Revisited (London: Verso, 1997), 17.

2. Ellen K. Feder, Family Bonds: Genealogies of Race and Gender (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), 44, ProQuest ebrary.

3. K. J. Stewart, A Geography for Beginners (Richmond: J. W. Randolph, 1864), 186, http://docsouth.unc.edu/imls/stewart/stewart.html.

Feder, Ellen K. Family Bonds: Genealogies of Race and Gender. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. ProQuest ebrary.

Nairn, Tom. Faces of Nationalism: Janus Revisited. London: Verso, 1997.

Stewart, K. J. A Geography for Beginners. Richmond: J. W. Randolph, 1864. http://docsouth.unc.edu/imls/stewart/stewart.html.


Edited Book

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.103

Format

note:

4. Editor First Name Last Name, ed., Book Title (Place: Publisher, Year), Cited Page(s).

bibliography:

Editor Last Name, First Name, ed. Book Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example

4. Basil Dmytryshyn, ed., Imperial Russia: A Source Book, 1700-1917 (New York: Academic International Press, 1999), 35-41.

Dmytryshyn, Basil, ed. Imperial Russia: A Source Book, 1700-1917. New York: Academic International Press, 1999.


Chapter or Essay in Book

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.107

Format

note:

5. Author First Name Last Name, "Chapter/Essay Title," in Book Title, ed. Editor First Name Last Name (Place: Publisher, Year), Cited Page(s).

bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. "Chapter/Essay Title." In Book Title, edited by Editor First Name Last Name, Inclusive Pages of Chapter/Essay. Place: Publisher, Year.
Example

5. Craig H. Roell, "The Piano in the American Home," in The Arts and the American Home, 1980-1930, ed. Jessica H. Foy and Karal Ann Marling (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1994), 194.

Roell, Craig H. "The Piano in the American Home." In The Arts and the American Home, 1890-1930, edited by Jessica H. Foy and Karal Ann Marling, 193-204. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1994.


Entry in Reference Source

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.232, 14.233, 14.234

Format

note:

6. Reference Source Title, s.v. "Entry Title."

bibliography:

Well-known encyclopedias and dictionaries are usually cited in notes only. For other reference works, cite as a chapter in a book.

For online resources, include last modified or accessed date and the URL.

Examples

6. Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. "Hamer, Fannie Lou."

7. Grove Music Online, s.v. "West, Kanye (Omari )," by Alyssa Woods, accessed April 23, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.A2289702.

Examples: Articles

Journal Article

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.168 - 14.187

Format

note:

1. Author First Name Last Name, "Article Title," Journal Title Volume, no. Issue (Year): Cited Page(s), URL/DOI.

bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume, no. Issue (Year): Page Range of Article. URL/DOI.

For journal articles consulted online, use a URL based on a DOI (begins with https://doi.org/). Otherwise, use the URL provided with the article.

Examples

1. Margaret Hunter, "Colorism in the Classroom: How Skin Tone Stratifies African American and Latina/o Students, " Theory into Practice 55, no. 1 (2016): 58, https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2016.1119019.

2. Maxine S. Thompson and Verna M. Keith, "The Blacker the Berry: Gender, Skin Tone, Self-Esteem, and Self-Efficacy," Gender and Society 15, no. 3 (2001): 340, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3081888.

Hunter, Margaret. "Colorism in the Classroom: How Skin Tone Stratifies African American and Latina/o Students." Theory into Practice 55, no. 1 (2016): 54-61. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2016.1119019.

Thompson, Maxine S., and Keith Verna M. "The Blacker the Berry: Gender, Skin Tone, Self-Esteem, and Self-Efficacy." Gender and Society 15, no. 3 (2001): 336-57. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3081888.


Magazine Article

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.188 - 14.190

Format

note:

3. Author First Name Last Name, "Article Title," Magazine Title, Date, Cited Page(s).

bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Magazine Title, Date.

Inclusive page numbers are not included in the bibliography entry because magazine articles tend to appear on non-consecutive pages. If citing an online magazine, end the citation with the URL, library database, or app.

Examples

3. Scott Spencer, "Childhood's End," Harper's, May 1979, 16.

4. Héctor Tobar, "Can Latinos Swing Arizona?," New Yorker, August 1, 2016, http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/08/01/promise-arizona-and-the-power-of-the-latino-vote.

4. Héctor Tobar, "Can Latinos Swing Arizona?," New Yorker (iPhone app), August 1, 2016.

Spencer, Scott. "Childhood's End." Harper's, May 1979.

Tobar, Héctor. "Can Latinos Swing Arizona?" New Yorker, August 1, 2016. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/08/01/promise-arizona-and-the-power-of-the-latino-vote.

Tobar, Héctor. "Can Latinos Swing Arizona?" New Yorker (iPhone app), August 1, 2016.


Newspaper Article

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.191 - 14.200

Format

note:

5. Author First Name Last Name, "Article Title," Newspaper Title, Date, sec. Section.

bibliography:

Newspaper articles are cited in the text in the notes, but usually are not included in the bibliography. (CMOS, 14.199) Below is the format, if required by your professor.

Author Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Newspaper Title, Date, sec. Section.

Page numbers are not included because articles can appear on different pages in different editions. For regularly occurring columns, cite with both the column name and headline or just the column name. If citing an online newspaper, include the URL at the end. If citing from a library database, include the database name.

Examples

5. Steven Erlanger, "Pact on Israeli Pullback Hinges on Defining Army's Role," New York Times, May 8, 1998, sec. A.

6. John Eligon, "One Slogan, Many Methods: Black Lives Matter Enters Politics," New York Times, November 18, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/19/us/one-slogan-many-methods-black-lives-matter-enters-politics.html.

7. Martin Luther King, Jr., "Negro Faces Dixie Justice," My Dream, Chicago Defender, April 23, 1966, ProQuest Historical Newspapers.

Eligon, John. "One Slogan, Many Methods: Black Lives Matter Enters Politics." New York Times, November 18, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/19/us/one-slogan-many-methods-black-lives-matter-enters-politics.html.

Erlanger, Steve. "Pact on Israeli Pullback Hinges on Defining Army's Role." New York Times, May 8, 1998, sec. A.

King, Martin Luther, Jr. "Negro Faces Dixie Justice." My Dream. Chicago Defender, April 23, 1966. ProQuest Historical Newspapers.

Examples: Web Pages, Blogs, Social Media

Web Page

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.207

Format

note:

1. Author First Name Last Name, "Page Title," Website Title or Site Sponsor, last modified Date, URL.

bibliography:

Website content is usually cited in notes or in the text only. (CMOS,14.207) If a bibliography entry is needed, use the format below.

Author Last Name, First Name. "Page Title." Website Title or Site Sponsor. Last modified Date. URL.

If there is no personal author, start with the page title or site sponsor. If there is no last modified date, use the accessed date and change "last modified" to "accessed."

Examples

1. Drew DeSilver, "The Real Value of a $15 Minimum Wage Depends on Where You Live," Pew Research Center, last modified October 10, 2018, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/10/10/the-real-value-of-a-15-minimum-wage-depends-on-where-you-live/.

2. "State Maps of Laws & Policies," Human Rights Campaign, accessed February 7, 2019, http://www.hrc.org/state_maps.

DeSilver, Drew. "The Real Value of a $15 Minimum Wage Depends on Where You Live." Pew Research Center. Last modified October 10, 2018. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/10/10/the-real-value-of-a-15-minimum-wage-depends-on-where-you-live/.

"State Maps of Laws & Policies." Human Rights Campaign. Accessed February 7, 2019. http://www.hrc.org/state_maps.


Blog Post

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.208

Format

note:

3. Author First Name Last Name, "Post Title," Blog Title (blog), Date, URL.

bibliography:

Blog posts are usually cited in notes only.

If the blog has the word "blog" as part of its name, "(blog)" should not be included in the citation. If the blog is a part of a larger publication, include that title, too.

Example

3. Jenell Stewart, "Natural Hair Creates a More Inclusive Standard," My Natural Hair Journey (blog), Huffington Post, July 12, 2016, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jenell-stewart/natural-hair-creates-a-more-inclusive-beauty-standard_b_10949874.html.


Blog Comment

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.208

Format

note:

4. Commenter Name, Timestamp of Comment, comment on Blog Post Citation.

bibliography:

Comments are usually cited in notes only.

If the blog post has been cited previously, the blog post citation can be shortened.

Example

4. Silver H., August 16, 2014 (3:17 p.m.), comment on Jack Halberstam, "You Are Triggering Me! The Neo-Liberal Rhetoric of Harm, Danger and Trauma," Bully Bloggers, July 5, 2014, https://bullybloggers.wordpress.com/2014/07/05/you-are-triggering-me-the-neo-liberal-rhetoric-of-harm-danger-and-trauma/#comment-9001/.


Social Media

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.209

Citations for social media content can often be incorporated into the text:

Reacting to the Obergefell v. Hodges decision, Obama tweeted, "Today is a big step in our march toward equality. Gay and lesbian couples now have the right to marry, just like anyone else. #LoveWins" (@POTUS44, June 26, 2015).

If you cite an account frequently or an extensive thread, use the format below.

Format

note:

5. Author's Real First Name Last Name (Screen name), "up to 160 characters of text of post," Social Media Service Name, Month Day, Year, URL.

bibliography:

Author's Real Last Name, First Name (Screen name). "up to 160 characters of text of post." Social Media Service Name, Month Day, Year. URL.

Use the screen name in the author position if there is no real name. If you have already fully quoted the text of the post, that element is not needed in the note. If relevant, include media type (photo, video, etc.) after the name of the social media service.

Example

5. Barack Obama (@POTUS), "Today is a big step in our march toward equality. Gay and lesbian couples now have the right to marry, just like anyone else. #LoveWins," Twitter, June 26, 2015, http://twitter.com/POTUS/status/614435467120001024.

Obama, Barack (@POTUS). "Today is a big step in our march toward equality. Gay and lesbian couples now have the right to marry, just like anyone else. #LoveWins." Twitter. June 26, 2015. http://twitter.com/POTUS/status/614435467120001024.

Examples: Music, Film, TV, Images

Music Score

Published music scores are cited like books and book chapters. For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.255

Format

note:

1. Composer First Name Last Name, "Song Title," Book Title, ed. Editor First Name Last Name, (Place: Publisher, Year), Cited Page(s).

bibliography:

Composer Last Name, First Name. "Song Title." In Book Title, edited by Editor First Name Last Name, Inclusive Pages for Song. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example

1. Charles L. Johnson, "Crazy Bone Rag," in Ragtime Jubilee: 42 Piano Gems, 1911-21, ed. David A. Jasen, (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1997), 42.

Johnson, Charles L. "Crazy Bone Rag." In Ragtime Jubilee: 42 Piano Gems, 1911-21, edited by David A. Jasen, 41-45. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1997.


Music Recording

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.263

Format

note:

2. Performer or Conductor First Name Last Name, "Song Title," by Composer First Name Last Name, recorded Date (if applicable), track # on Album Title, Record Label Catalog Number, Year, Medium or Streaming Service or File Format.

bibliography:

Music recordings are often cited in a separate discography instead of the bibliography.

Performer or Conductor Last Name, First Name. Album Title. Record Label Catalog Number, Year, Medium or Streaming Service or File Format. Originally released in Year.

Examples

2. The Beatles, "The Long and Winding Road," by John Lennon and Paul McCartney, track 10 on Let it Be, Capitol 3 82472 2, 2009, compact disc.

3. Beyoncé, "Sorry," by Diana Gordon, Melo-X, and Beyoncé, track 4 on Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016. MP3.

The Beatles. Let it Be. Capitol 3 82472 2, 2009, compact disc. Originally released 1970.

Beyoncé. Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, MP3.

 


Film

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.265

Format

note:

4. Film Title, directed by Director First Name Last Name (Original Film Release Year; Place: Studio/Distributor, Release Year of Medium Used), Medium.

bibliography:

Director First Name Last Name, dir. Film Title. Original Film Release Year; Place: Studio/Distributor, Release Year of Medium Used. Medium.

Example

4. Thelma & Louise, directed by Ridley Scott (1991; Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment, 2004), DVD.

Scott, Ridley, dir. Thelma & Louise. 1991; Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment, 2004. DVD.


Online Video

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.267

The format of citations depends on the information available. Generally, include details about the original published source (if applicable) and details related to the digitized copy such as source type, length, and where it is posted. See the two examples of format below.

Format

note:

5. Video Creator First Name Last Name, Video Title (Original Production Company, Original Release Year), from Provider of Online Video, Source Type, Running Time, URL.

6. "Video Clip Title," Source Type, Running Time, from Original Performance or Source, posted by Name of Person/Organization, Date Posted, URL.

bibliography:

Video Creator Last Name, First Name. Video Title. Original Production Company, Original Release Year. From Provider of Online Video. Source Type, Running Time. URL.

"Video Clip Title." Source Type, Running Time. From Original Performance or Source. Posted by Name of Person/Organization, Date Posted. URL.

Examples

5. U.S. Federal Civil Defense Administration, Duck and Cover (Archer Productions, 1951), from Internet Archive, Prelinger Archives, MPEG video, 9:15, http://archive.org/details/DuckandC1951.

6. "TNC:172 Kennedy-Nixon First Presidential Debate, 1960" YouTube video, 58:34, from televised debate September 26, 1960, posted by John F. Kennedy Library Foundation, September 21, 2010, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbrcRKqLSRw.

"TNC:172 Kennedy-Nixon First Presidential Debate, 1960." YouTube video, 58:34. From televised debate September 26, 1960. Posted by John F. Kennedy Library Foundation, September 21, 2010. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbrcRKqLSRw.

U.S. Federal Civil Defense Administration. Duck and Cover. Archer Productions, 1951. From Internet Archive, Prelinger Archives. MPEG video, 9:15. http://archive.org/details/DuckandC1951.


Television

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.265

Format

note:

7. TV Show Title, season number, episode number, "Episode Title," directed by Director First Name Last Name, written by Writer First Name Last Name, featuring Performers First Names Last Names, aired Month Day, Year, on Network, Medium or URL for online access.

bibliography:

Director Last Name, First Name, dir. TV Show Title., Season number, episode number, "Episode Title." Aired Month Day, Year, on Network. Medium or URL for online access.

Example

7. Jane the Virgin, season 1, episode 1, "Chapter One," directed by Brad Silberling, written by Jennie Snyder Urman, featuring Gina Rodriguez, aired October 13, 2014 on The CW, https://www.netflix.com/title/80027158.

Silberling, Brad, dir. Jane the Virgin. Season 1, episode 1, "Chapter One." Aired October 13, 2014, on The CW. https://www.netflix.com/title/80027158.


Images

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.235 and CMOS Shop Talk

Format

note:

8. Artist/Photographer First Name Last Name,Title of the Work, Year Created, Medium, Size, Institution Where Original Held, URL.

bibliography:

Images are not usually included in a bibliography.

If the image was accessed in a book or library database, replace the URL with book citation or database name. Use the information about the work provided in the source you used.

Examples

8. Edgar Degas, The Dance Class, 1874, oil on canvas, 32 7/8 x 30 3/8 in., Metropolitan Museum of Art, http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/438817.

9. Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas, The Dance Class, probably 1874, oil on canvas, 32 3/4 x 30 1/4 in., Metropolitan Museum of Art, ArtStor.

10. Edgar Degas, The Dance Class, 1875-1876, oil on canvas, 33 x 31 3/4 in., Metropolitan Museum of Art, in Anne Dayez, Michel Hoog, and Charles S. Moffett, eds., Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, December 12, 1974-February 10, 1975 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1974.), 105.

Examples: Legal and Government Documents

The Chicago Manual of Style recommends using The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation to cite legal and public documents. Legal publications rarely include bibliographies. Thus, the examples below are for notes only.

Congressional Hearings

For more information see: The Bluebook, R13.3

Format

note:

1. Hearing Title, Congress Number Cong. Cited Page(s) (Year) (statement of First Name Last Name, Position Title, Organization/Affiliation).

If the hearing was found online, include the database name (in parentheses) or URL at the end of the citation.

Example

1. Facebook, Google and Twitter: Examining the Content Filtering Practices of Social Media Giants: Hearing Before the H. Comm. on the Judiciary, 115th Cong. 5-6 (2018) (statement of Monika Bickert, Head of Global Policy Management, Facebook). https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/CHRG-115hhrg33418/CHRG-115hhrg33418.

2. Federal Role in Urban Affairs. Part 14: Hearings Before the Subcomm. on Exec. Reorganization of the Sen. Comm. on Gov't Operations. 89th Cong. 2970 (1966) (statement of Dr. Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., President, Southern Christian Leadership Conference). (ProQuest Congressional Publications).


Congressional Debates

For more information see: The Bluebook, R13.5

Format

note:

3. Volume no. Cong. Rec. Cited Page(s) (Year)

If citing the daily edition, replace Year with "daily ed." and full date. If needed, the identity of the speaker may be included in parentheses. For debates in the predecessors of the Congressional Record (before 1873), see The Bluebook, R13.5.

Example

3. 156 Cong. Rec. 4133 (2010)

4. 156 Cong. Rec. H1819 (daily ed. March 21, 2010) (statement of Rep. Wilson).


Laws

For more information see: The Bluebook, R12.4

Format

note:

5. Name of Act, Pub. L. No. Public Law Number, Volume Stat. First Page (Year).

Example

5. Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Repeal Act of 2010, Pub. L. No. 111–321, 124 Stat. 3515 (2010)

6. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, Pub. L. No. 111-148 § 1501, 124 Stat. 119, 242-49 (2010).


Court Cases

For more information see: The Bluebook, R10

Format

note:

7. First Party v. Second Party, Volume No. Reporter Abbreviation First Page, Cited Page (Date of Decision).

Example

7. Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479, 492 (1965)

Supreme Court cases are reported in United States Reports which is abbreviated U.S.

Examples: Unpublished/Archival

Interview

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.211

Format

note:

1. Interviewee First Name Last Name (Brief identifying information, if appropriate), interview by First Name Last Name, Place, Date.

bibliography:

Interviews are usually run in to the text or cited in notes only.

  • If you conducted the interview, indicate "by author" instead of using your name.
  • Published interviews are cited based on the source type in which they appeared. (CMOS, 14.213)
Example

1. Adam Falk (college president, Williams College), interview by author, Williamstown, MA, May 15, 2016.


Personal Communication

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.214

Format

note:

2. First Name Last Name, type of communication to author, Date.

bibliography:

Personal communications are usually run into the text or cited in notes only.

Example

2. Michelle Obama, Facebook direct message to author, April 11, 2019.


Manuscript/Archival Material

For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.221-14.213

Format

note:

3. Item, Date, Collection Name, Repository Name, Place.

bibliography:

Specific items are not included in the bibliography unless only one item from a collection is cited. The bibliographic entry gives details about the collection only.

Collection Name. Repository Name. Place.

If the item was accessed online, include the URL at the end of the citation.

Example

3. Mark Hopkins to Jaime Margalotti, 22 March 1861, Hopkins Family Papers, Williams College Special Collections, Williamstown, MA.

Hopkins Family Papers. Williams College Special Collections. Williamstown, MA.

Need More Info?

What Needs to be Cited?

  • Exact wording taken from any source, including freely available websites
  • Paraphrases of passages
  • Summaries of another person's work
  • Indebtedness to another person for an idea
  • Use of another student's work
  • Use of your own previous work

You do not need to cite common knowledge.