The Chicago Manual of Style Author-Date system is used by scholars in the social sciences and sciences. For arts, history, and humanities, see the Notes/Bibliography system.
Citing sources in this style consists of two parts:
The in-text citation points the reader to the full information about the source found in the reference list.
See How to Format In-Text Citations, How to Format the Reference List, and the examples of types of sources in the left navigation for further details.
An in-text citation provides your reader with two pieces of information:
For more detailed information see Chicago Manual of Style, 15.21-15.31.
For more detailed information see Chicago Manual of Style, 15.10-15.20
The reference list provides the full details of the items you have cited in your paper. Here are some general features of the reference list:
Du Bois, W. E. B. 1898. "The Study of the Negro Problems." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 11 (January): 1-23. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1009474.
———. 1903. The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and Sketches. Chicago: A. C. McClurg.
———. 1947. The World and Africa: An Inquiry into the Part Which Africa Has Played in World History. New York: Viking.
Olney, William W. 2015a. "Impact of Corruption on Firm-Level Export Decisions." Economic Inquiry 54 (2): 1105–27.
Olney, William W. 2015b. "Remittances and the Wage Impact of Immigration." Journal of Human Resources 50 (3): 694-727.
(World Bank 2011)
(New York Times 1912)
If the author is unknown, start the reference list entry with the title. For the in-text citation, use the title, which can be shortened as long as the first word matches the reference list entry (CMOS, 15.34)
(Human Rights Campaign, n.d.)
(Library of Congress, n.d., under "Slave Narratives and the New Debate about Slavery")
(Geis and Bunn 1997, 17)
(Chih-Hung Ko et al. 2009, 600)
Geis, Gilbert, and Ivan Bunn. 1997. A Trial of Witches: a Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Prosecution. London: Routledge.
Ko, Chih-Hung, Ju-Yu Yen, Shu-Chun Liu, Chi-Fen Huang, and Cheng-Fang Yen. 2009. "The Associations between Aggressive Behaviors and Internet Addiction and Online Activities in Adolescents." Journal of Adolescent Health 44 (6): 598-605.
It is always better to consult the original source, but if it cannot be obtained, give information about the original source in the running text and include "quoted in" in your in-text citation for the secondary source. Include only the secondary source in your reference list. (CMOS, 15.56)
In his 1844 book Thoughts on the Proposed Annexation of Texas to the United States, Theodore Sedgwick opines "The annexation of Texas instead of strengthening the Union, weakens it" (quoted in Rathbun 2001, 479).
Rathbun, Lyon. 2001. "The Debate over Annexing Texas and the Emergence of Manifest Destiny." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 4 (3): 459-493.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.9, 15.40-15.45
Author Last Name, First Name. Year. Book Title. Place: Publisher.
For e-books, include the provider of the book, the URL, or e-book application/device at the end of the citation. (CMOS,14.159-14.163)
Feder, Ellen K. 2007. Family Bonds: Genealogies of Race and Gender. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ProQuest ebrary.
Nairn, Tom. 1997. Faces of Nationalism: Janus Revisited. London: Verso.
Stewart, K. J. 1864. A Geography for Beginners. Richmond: J. W. Randolph. http://docsouth.unc.edu/imls/stewart/stewart.html.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.9, 15.36
Author Last Name, First Name, ed. Year. Book Title. Place: Publisher.
Dmytryshyn, Basil, ed. 1999. Imperial Russia: A Source Book, 1700-1917. New York: Academic International Press.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.9, 14.106-14.112
Roell, Craig H. 1994. "The Piano in the American Home." In The Arts and the American Home, 1890-1930, edited by Jessica H. Foy and Karal Ann Marling, 193-204. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.232, 14.233, 14.234
Well-known encyclopedias and dictionaries are usually cited in the running text only. For other reference works, cite as a book or book chapter.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.9, 15.46
Author Last Name, First Name. Year. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume (Issue): Page Range of Article. URL/DOI.
For journal articles consulted online, use a URL based on a DOI (begins with https://doi.org/). Otherwise, use the URL provided with the article.
Hunter, Margaret. 2016. "Colorism in the Classroom: How Skin Tone Stratifies African American and Latina/o Students." Theory into Practice 55 (1): 54-61. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2016.1119019.
Thompson, Maxine S., and Keith Verna M. 2001. "The Blacker the Berry: Gender, Skin Tone, Self-Esteem, and Self-Efficacy." Gender and Society 15 (3): 336-57. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3081888.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.49
Magazine articles can be cited in the running text (e.g., As Scott Spencer mentions in his May 1979 Harper's article "Childhood's End," ....) and not included in the reference list. However, if a formal citation is needed, follow the example below, repeating the year with the month and day.
Author Last Name, First Name. Year. "Article Title." Magazine Title, Month Day, Year, Page Range of Article.
If citing an online magazine, end the citation with the URL, library database, or app.
Spencer, Scott. 1979. "Childhood's End." Harper's, May 1979, 16-19.
Tobar, Héctor. 2016. "Can Latinos Swing Arizona?" New Yorker. August 1, 2016. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/08/01/promise-arizona-and-the-power-of-the-latino-vote.
Tobar, Héctor. 2016. "Can Latinos Swing Arizona?" New Yorker (iPhone app). August 1, 2016.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.49, 14.191 - 14.200
Newspaper articles can be cited in the running text (e.g., As John Eligon mentioned in his November 18, 2015 New York Times article ....) and not included in the reference list. However, if your professor requires it, follow the examples below, repeating the year with the month and day.
Author Last Name, First Name. Year. "Article Title." Newspaper Title, Month Day, Year. sec. Section.
Page numbers are not included because articles can appear on different pages in different editions. For regularly occurring columns, cite with both the column name and headline or just the column name. If citing an online newspaper, include the URL at the end. If citing from a library database, include the database name.
Eligon, John. 2015. "One Slogan, Many Methods: Black Lives Matter Enters Politics." New York Times, November 18, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/19/us/one-slogan-many-methods-black-lives-matter-enters-politics.html.
Erlanger, Steve. 1998. "Pact on Israeli Pullback Hinges on Defining Army's Role." New York Times, May 8, 1998, sec. A.
King, Martin Luther, Jr. 1966. "Negro Faces Dixie Justice." My Dream. Chicago Defender, April 23, 1966. ProQuest Historical Newspapers.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.51, CMOS quick guide
Author Last Name, First Name. Last Modified Year. "Page Title." Website Title. Last modified Month Day, Year. URL.
If there is no personal author, start with the page title or site sponsor. If there is no last modified date, use n.d.
DeSilver, Drew. 2018. "The Real Value of a $15 Minimum Wage Depends on Where You Live." Pew Research Center. Last modified October 10, 2018. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/10/10/the-real-value-of-a-15-minimum-wage-depends-on-where-you-live/.
Human Rights Campaign. n.d. "Maps of State Laws and Policies." Accessed April 25, 2019. http://www.hrc.org/state_maps.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.51 and 14.208
Blog posts and comments are generally cited in the running text and omitted from the reference list. If a reference list entry is needed, follow the example below.
Author Last Name, First Name. Year. "Post Title," Blog Title (blog), Month Day, Year. URL.
If the blog has the word "blog" as part of its name, "(blog)" should not be included in the citation. If the blog is a part of a larger publication, include that title, too.
Stewart, Jenell. 2016. "Natural Hair Creates a More Inclusive Standard," My Natural Hair Journey (blog), Huffington Post, July 12, 2016. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jenell-stewart/natural-hair-creates-a-more-inclusive-beauty-standard_b_10949874.html.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.209 and 15.52
Citations for social media content can often be incorporated into the text:
Reacting to the Obergefell v. Hodges decision, Obama tweeted, "Today is a big step in our march toward equality. Gay and lesbian couples now have the right to marry, just like anyone else. #LoveWins" (@POTUS44, June 26, 2015).
If you cite an account frequently or an extensive thread, use the format below for the reference list. Direct or private messages shared through social media are treated as personal communication (see COMS, 15.53).
Use the screen name in the author position if there is no real name. If you have already fully quoted the text of the post, that element is not needed in the note. If relevant, include media type (photo, video, etc.) after the name of the social media service.
Note: In many cases media can be cited in the running text or grouped in a separate section or discography, but author-date style citation can be created by adapting the format used in the notes/bibliography style, moving the year to the second position. You can choose whom to list as the author depending on the focus of your citation. While you should always cite the format you used, the original date of the work, if known, should be privileged in the citation. (CMOS, 15.57)
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.255
Published music scores are cited like books and book chapters.
Composer Last Name, First Name. Year. "Song Title." In Book Title, edited by Editor First Name Last Name, Inclusive Pages for Song. Place: Publisher.
Johnson, Charles L. "Crazy Bone Rag." 1997. In Ragtime Jubilee: 42 Piano Gems, 1911-21, edited by David A. Jasen, 41-45. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.263
Performer or Conductor Last Name, First Name. Original Release Year. Album Title. Record Label Catalog Number, Year of Format Used, Medium or Streaming Service or File Format.
The Beatles. 1970. Let it Be. Capitol 3 82472 2, 2009, compact disc.
Beyoncé. 2016. Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, MP3.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.265
Director First Name Last Name, dir. Original Film Release Year. Film Title. Place: Studio/Distributor, Release Year of Medium Used. Medium.
Scott, Ridley, dir. 1991. Thelma & Louise. Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment, 2004. DVD.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.267
The format of citations depends on the information available. Generally, include details about the original published source (if applicable) and details related to the digitized copy such as source type, length, and where it is posted. See the two examples of format below.
Video Creator Last Name, First Name. Original Release Year. Video Title. Original Production Company. From Provider of Online Video. Source Type, Running Time. URL.
Digitizing Organization. Original Year. "Video Clip Title." Source Type, Running Time. From Original Performance or Source Date. Posted Date. URL.
U.S. Federal Civil Defense Administration.1951. Duck and Cover. Archer Productions. From Internet Archive, Prelinger Archives. MPEG video, 9:15. http://archive.org/details/DuckandC1951.
John F. Kennedy Library Foundation. 1960. "TNC:172 Kennedy-Nixon First Presidential Debate, 1960." YouTube video, 58:34. From televised debate September 26, 1960. Posted September 21, 2010. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbrcRKqLSRw.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 14.265
Director Last Name, First Name, dir. Year aired. TV Show Title., Season number, episode number, "Episode Title." Aired Month Day, Year, on Network. Medium or URL for online access.
Silberling, Brad, dir. 2014. Jane the Virgin. Season 1, episode 1, "Chapter One." Aired October 13, 2014, on The CW. https://www.netflix.com/title/80027158.
For more information see: CMOS Shop Talk
Images are usually not included in the reference list. In the running text or caption indicate the artist, year the work was created, title of the work, and where it is located.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.58 and 15.59
If you make extensive use of legal or government documents, cite them in the Chicago Notes format as supplementary footnotes instead of as in-text citations. See CMOS 15.31.
If you are using just a few documents, cite them in the running text using the legal citation form recommended in The Chicago Manual of Style, 14.269-14.305 and in the Chicago Notes section of this guide.
In Griswold v. Connecticut (381 U.S. 479 (1965)), the court ruled that ...
In remarks about the DREAM Act on the Senate floor (156 Cong. Rec. S10259 (daily ed. December 15, 2010)), Senator Durbin discussed ...
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.48
Unpublished interviews are cited as an in-text citation only; they do not appear in the reference list.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.49
Manuscript materials are cited in the running text indicating the date of the cited item and using the name of the manuscript collection in the in-text reference.
The reference list provides details about the manuscript collection only, not the individual items.
If only one item from a collection is cited, the details of that item can be included in the reference list and the author used in the in-text citation.
Collection Name. Repository Name. Place.
Author Last Name, First Name. Year of Item. Item Description. Month Day, Year of Item. Collection Name. Repository Name, Place.
If the item was accessed online, include the URL at the end of the citation.
Hopkins Family Papers. Williams College Special Collections. Williamstown, MA.
(Hopkins Family Papers)
Hopkins, Mark. 1861. Letter to Jaime Margalotti. March 22, 1861. Hopkins Family Papers. Williams College Special Collections, Williamstown, MA.
You do not need to cite common knowledge.